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The infiltration of state organizations can provide subversive groups the opportunity to do many things to achieve their goals. The infiltration of security forces can provide information about the government’s capabilities and how they plan to address the group’s activities. Infiltration also provides the opportunity to plant false information, lead the government to misallocate resources, to steal funds, weapons, equipment, and other resources, and ultimately aid in weakening and delegitimizing the government. [24] The targets of infiltration are not limited to the groups and institutions mentioned above. Economic industries and universities have also been the target for infiltration. In the case of universities, the liberal arts departments are more prone to subversion than the hard sciences. [25] For precautionary measures one could possibly assume that any group, organization, or institution that may help sway the opinion and beliefs of the citizenry against the government could be a target for infiltration.

Economics can be both a tool of the internal and external subversive. For the external subversive simply cutting off credit can cause severe economic problems for a country. An example of this is the United States' relations with Mens Evoimpact 33 Fitness Shoes Puma Discount Very Cheap RwBNFvv
in the early 1970s. In an attempt to get Salvador Allende removed from office, the United States tried to weaken the Chilean economy. Chile received little foreign investments and the loss of credit prevented Chile from purchasing vital imports. [26] An economic pressure of this kind prevents an economy from functioning and reduces a country’s standard of living. If the reduction is too great, the people may become willing to support a change in the government’s leadership. The main objective of economic pressures is to make it difficult for the country to fulfill its basic obligations to the citizenry either by cutting off trade or by depriving it of resources.

The internal subversive can also use economics to put pressure on the government through use of the strike. An example of this is the Chilean Truckers’ Strike during the 1970s. The strike prevented the transport of food staples and forced nearly 50% of the national economy to cease production. [27] Activities of these kinds create human, economic, and political problems that, if not addressed, can challenge the competency of the government.

As defined by Laurence Beilenson, agitation is "subversive propaganda by action such as mass demonstrations or the political strike, that is, a strike not intended to benefit the union or workers in the ordinary sense, but intended instead against the government". Lace Flute Sleeve High Neck Maxi Dress With Wrap Front Skirt Black Club L Clearance Clearance Sale Cheap Online Buy Cheap Affordable SAOB8WyD
Furthermore, propaganda and agitation, even when they are legal forms of freedom of speech, press, and assembly can still be classified as subversive activity. These tools further demonstrate the need to determine intent of those taking action to identify subversive activities.

You might like to use Descriptive Statistics to check your hand computation.

A Short Discussion on the Descriptive Statistic:

Deviations about the mean m of a distribution is the basis for most of the statistical tests we will learn. Since we are measuring how much a set of scores is dispersed about the mean m , we are measuring variability . We can calculate the deviations about the mean m and express it as variance s 2 or standard deviation s . It is very important to have a firm grasp of this concept because it will be a central concept throughout your statistics course .

Both variance s 2 and standard deviation s measure variability within a distribution. Standard deviation s is a number that indicates how much on average each of the values in the distribution deviates from the mean m (or center) of the distribution. Keep in mind that variance s 2 measures the same thing as standard deviation s (dispersion of scores in a distribution). Variance s 2 , however, is the average squared deviations about the mean m . Thus, variance s 2 is the square of the standard deviation s .

The expected value and the variance of the statistic are m and s 2 /n, respectively.

The expected value and variance of statistic S 2 are s 2 and 2 s 4 / (n-1), respectively.

and S 2 are the best estimators for m and s 2 . They are Unbiased (you may update your estimate); Efficient (they have the smallest variation among other estimators); Consistent (increasing sample size provides a better estimate); and Sufficient (you do not need to have the whole data set; what you need are S x i and S x i 2 for estimations). Note also that the above variance S 2 is justified only in the case where the population distribution tends to be normal, otherwise one may use bootstrapping techniques.

In general, it is believed that the pattern of mode, median, and mean go from lower to higher in positive skewed data sets, and just the opposite pattern in negative skewed data sets. However; for example, in the following 23 numbers, mean = 2.87, median = 3, but the data is positively skewed:

and, the following 10 numbers have mean = median = mode = 4, but the data set is left skewed:

Note also, that most commercial software do not correctly compute skewness and kurtosis . There is no easy way to determine confidence intervals about a computed skewness or kurtosis value from a small to medium sample. The literature gives tables based on asymptotic methods for sample sets larger than 100 for normal distributions only.

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